This is major compensation and like Fidyah it is also Sadaqah Wajibah. It applies in various situations such as if a person breaks a fast intentionally, breaks an oath, or causes the death of someone, Kaffarah would then be binding as the form of redemption. There are five actions for which kaffarah will be necessary, however, they fall under two types.
For redemption of this a person may free a slave (if feasible) or fast for sixty consecutive days (if a person breaks a fast intentionally they would need to fast for sixty consecutive days, unless they can’t fast due to poor health or old age, there are no exceptions to this). Failing that one may feed sixty poor people for a day (i.e. give them the amount equivalent to fidya/sadaqatul fitr or give them two meals for the day). This Kaffarah applies to:
* Intentionally breaking Sawm (fast)
* Breaking Zihar (to consider one’s wife as Haram for oneself by comparing her to a Mahram – anyone too closely related to be marriageable).
* Being the direct cause of someone’s death (this is coupled with the set punishments).
Note: In the instance of not being able to feed sixty people in a single day then he may feed one person for sixty days, but in this case if he were to try to quicken payment of this by giving all the money in one day to one person, kaffarah would not be fulfilled, and his offering would only be equal to one days feeding.
For redemption of this a person may free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or feed ten poor people for two meals in one day, or give each one of them clothing. Failing this, he may fast for three consecutive days (The order is also different from the greater Kaffarah). This Kaffarah applies to:
* Breaking/violating Yamin (an oath)
* Breaking Ila’ (To take an oath on not having conjugal relationships with one’s wife)